Headwater Springs of Fall River

Fall River - Bellwether of Climate Change

Spring-derived streams are fairly common along the eastern slopes of the Cascade Range in Central Oregon, including the Metolius River, Cultus River, Quinn River, Brown’s Creek and Fall River. The combination of heavy precipitation along the Cascade crest, permeable volcanic bedrock, plus groundwater flow serves to recharge all of these spring-fed streams. But Fall River has been the most extensively studied as a local indicator of climate change — besides having a delightful hiking trail along its banks to explore.
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Aerial View of Klamath Marsh Narrows

Historical Crossing at Klamath Marsh Narrows

Sometimes the distinctive natural landforms of a place combine with centuries of human activity to create an exceptional mix of geography and history. The Klamath Marsh Narrows is such a place. This three-quarter mile crossing, in the midst of 65 square miles of sprawling marshland, has been used by Native Americans for millennia, by the John C. Fremont expedition in 1843, and by travelers down to the present day. It’s one of the best birding spots in Central Oregon, and hikers can follow in Fremont’s footsteps along the edge of the grasslands, enjoying solitude and sweeping Cascade mountain views.
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Panoramic Photo of Tumuli Lava

Tumuli Lava - A Backdoor into the Badlands

What are tumuli (besides the plural of tumulus)? From the Latin tumidus, meaning swollen or bulging in shape, a tumulus is a circular, domed lava structure up to 30’ high and 60’ in diameter, formed by the upward pressure of actively-flowing lava against its cooling crust. Along with its elongated cousin, the pressure ridge, these fascinating lava formations can be explored on a less-traveled trail in the Badlands Wilderness, just 15 miles east of Bend.
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Photo of Boat on Upper Deschutes River

Meander Belt on the Upper Deschutes River

What do river meanders and the results of a train wreck have in common? Both reflect the dissipation of excess energy. When a moving train impacts a large object on the tracks, the extra kinetic energy of the railcars causes them to scatter in a serpentine pattern behind the engine. When a river has more energy than it can dissipate through turbulence and sediment transport, it will carve meanders in its floodplain to reduce its gradient and stream power. A classic example of this river dynamic is found in a 6-mile meander belt on the Upper Deschutes River, between LaPine State Park and the Big River Campground.
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45th Parallel Road Sign near Shaniko

The 45th Parallel - Linking Shaniko to the World

Is there a link between the towns of Shaniko, Oregon and Turin, Italy? Surprisingly yes, as both are located on the 45th parallel, a line of latitude circling the earth halfway between the North Pole and the Equator. When standing on the line near Shaniko, this latitude also connects you with the hot springs of Yellowstone Park, with the wine regions of Bordeaux, with the Crimean Peninsula in the Black Sea, with the deserts of Mongolia, and with the snowy northern islands of Japan.
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